ALTA
The American Land Title Association, founded in 1907, is the national trade association and voice of the abstract* and title insurance industry. ALTA members search, review and insure land titles to protect home buyers and mortgage lenders who invest in real estate. ALTA is headquartered in Washington, DC.

ALTA SURVEY
An ALTA Survey generally shows the same features as the Title Survey however the surveyor is obligated to follow the rules set forth in the ALTA standards instead of the minimum standards set forth by the TBPLS.

AS-BUILT SURVEYS
Horizontal and Vertical depiction of a completed construction site. AsBuilt surveys are normally used to verify that the site was constructed according to plan or may point out areas of site that may be different than originally planned.

BOUNDARY SURVEYS
Horizontal depiction of the deed lines or property lines as re-established. Map will normally show monuments found or set at each corner, bearings and distances between corners and acreage. Location of improvements and easements are optional. The purpose of Boundary
Surveys are normally used for determining acreage, obtaining building permits, resolve boundary disputes or erecting fences.


CONTOUR
An imaginary line on the ground all points of which are at the same elevation above or below a specified datum surface.
(New Mexico Assessors 2001)


CONTOUR INTERVAL
(1) The difference of elevation represented by adjacent contour lines. (2)
The difference of elevation between two adjacent contours.
(ASCE-ACSM 1993)

CONTROL NETWORKS
In general, coordinated and correlated position data forming a framework to which detail surveys are adjusted. Basic control may be horizontal, vertical or both; it is usually executed with greater precision and accuracy than is required for dependent surveys. Also, the point or points permanent in character within a network of basic control, for which the coordinates and/or elevation to a specific accuracy are known and which are used as origin and closure for making a control survey or for making an engineering, cadastral, or other survey.

CONSTRUCTION SURVEYS
To stake accurately on the ground the location of proposed, utilities or improvements normally designed by an engineer or architect. The purpose for Construction Staking is normally to layout Streets, Parking, Private and Public Utilities and Buildings. In order to request Construction Staking we do require an approved set of drawings stamped or signed by the person responsible for Plans.

EASEMENT PREPARATION
An easement is a right to use someone else’s land for a specific purpose. Easements are often granted across someone’s property for ingress and egress. Easements are usually created by express conveyance such as by a deed but they can also be created by implication, by rescription, by estoppel and by necessity. (Buckner, R.B. 1991)

ELEVATION CERTIFICATES
The Elevation Certificate is an important administrative tool of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). It is to be used to provide elevation information necessary to ensure compliance with community floodplain management ordinances, to determine the proper insurance
premium rate, and to support a request for a Letter of Map Amendment (LOMA) or Letter of Map Revision based on fill (LOMR-F). The Elevation Certificate is required in order to properly rate post-FIRM buildings.


GAS PIPELINE SURVEYING
Gas Pipeline Surveying is the staking on the ground of the route of a proposed pipeline and to locate on the ground the boundary lines of the tracts that are involved for the preparation of easements that will be required. Gas Pipeline Surveying is normally performed for the inspection of the property owner, the Environmentalist, the pipe line company and the construction company.

GEO-REFERENCING DATA
To define its existence in physical space. That is, establishing its location in terms of map projections or coordinate systems. The term is used both when establishing the relation between raster or vector images and coordinates, and when determining the spatial location of other geographical features. Examples would include establishing the correct position of an aerial photograph within a map or finding the geographical coordinates of a place name or street address. This procedure is thus imperative to data modeling in the field of geographic information
systems (GIS) and other cartographic methods. When data from different sources need to be combined and then used in a GIS application, it becomes essential to have a common referencing system. This is brought about by using various georeferencing techniques. Most geo referencing tasks are undertaken either because the user wants to produce a new map or because they want to link two or more different datasets together by virtue of the fact that they relate to the same geographic locations.


HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY
Is the science of measurement and description of features which affect maritime navigation, marine construction, dredging and related disciplines. Strong emphasis is placed on soundings, shorelines, sea floor and submerged obstructions that relate to the previously mentioned activities. The term Hydrography is sometimes used synonymously to describe Maritime Cartography, which in the final stages of the
hydrographic process uses the raw data collected through hydrographic survey into information usable by the end user. The purpose of a Hydrograghic Survey is normally for the purpose of constructing a marina, dredging or computing water volume.


LAND PLANNING
To create a conceptual drawing showing how to best layout of the property to be subdivided based on several different criteria’s. The purpose of this is normally to plan for the creation of a subdivision Plat.

LINE STAKING
A line of stakes set on the ground between property corners or points of interest normally designated by the client. The purpose of Line Staking is normally for the purpose of clearing a heavily brushed area without clearing on the abutting piece of property, the erection of a fence or to have as a reference to layout improvements without encroaching on building lines or the abutting piece of property.

L.O.M.A. APPLICATION
This form should be used by an individual property owner to request that the Federal Emergency Management Agency remove the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) designation from a single structure or a legally recorded parcel of land or portion thereof by issuing a Letter of Map Amendment. The SFHA is the area, shown on a NFIP map that will be inundated by the flood having a 1-percent chance of being equaled or
exceeded in any given year (also known as the base, or 100-year, flood).


PLANIMETRIC MAP
Horizontal depiction of map features on a two-dimensional plane without any reference to contours or topographic relief. Typical features defined within a planimetric map include improvements on property, such natural and cultural features as streams, roads, shorelines, waterways, building footprints, reservoirs, bridges, roadways, overpasses, sidewalks and parking lots. (Kansas Association of Mappers 1997)

PLATTING
Creation of a subdivision out of a raw acreage or re-subdivide (Replat) of an existing subdivision.

TBPLS
The Texas Board of Professional Land Surveying is a branch of the Texas Government that regulates the Professional Land Surveyors. Their priority goal will be to ensure that Texas consumers are effectively and efficiently served by high quality professionals and businesses by setting clear standards, maintaining compliance and seeking marketbased solutions. Their mission is to protect the residents of Texas by regulating, licensing and renewing the licenses of only competent surveyors; surveyors able to provide accurate surveys which will result in the orderly use of our physical environment. Their philosophy is that they will license only competent surveyors and will regulate the practice of surveying. We will manage our resources as efficiently and effectively as possible with a commitment to excellence.

TITLE SURVEYS
A Title Survey generally shows the same features as the Boundary Survey except the location of improvements and easements are not optional. The location of the flood zone is optional. The purpose of a Title Survey is normally used in a purchase of land that will be mortgaged.

TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS
A topographic map generally shows the same features as a planimetric map, but contour lines or comparable symbols are used to show mountains, valleys and plains; A survey which has for its major purposes the determination of the configuration of the surface of the earth (ground), and the location of natural and artificial objects thereon.

TREE SURVEYS
A tree survey is a map that the location, size and type of tree in relative to the boundary lines of a tract of land and or other physical features. The purpose of a Tree Survey is normally used in the Land Planning stage in order to save the Trees, or some municipalities want to see a landscaping plan showing existing trees, trees that will be destroyed and trees that will be planted during the Preliminary Plat stage of a subdivision.

WELL STAKING
A survey that marks the location of a proposed well site in relation to the unit lines or survey lines. This survey also shows the unit boundaries and the individual tracts included in the unit, and a total unit acreage. A plat is prepared showing all required information needed to submit to the railroad commission for the necessary permits for drilling.

ZONING EXHIBIT
A Zoning Exhibit for personal property is an exhibit showing the existing zoning and the proposed zoning of a any certain site. A Zoning Exhibit for areas under the jurisdiction of a Municipality or Governmental Entity is an Exhibit showing the boundary of different zones within their jurisdiction. Zoning types and definitions are normally described by Governmental Ordinances.